Dating customs in peru
As these inhabitants became sedentary, farming allowed them to build settlements and new societies emerged along the coast and in the Andean mountains.
The first known city in the Americas was Caral, located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima. What is left from the civilization, also called Norte Chico, is about 30 pyramidal structures built up in receding terraces ending in a flat roof; some of them measured up to 20 meters in height.
The site includes the oldest three-dimensional sculptures found thus far in South America.
In 2007 the archeologist Walter Alva and his team found a 4,000-year-old temple with painted murals at Ventarrón, in the northwest Lambayeque region.
The temple contained ceremonial offerings gained from exchange with Peruvian jungle societies, as well as those from the Ecuadoran coast.
Such finds show sophisticated, monumental construction requiring large-scale organization of labor, suggesting that hierarchical, complex cultures arose in South America much earlier than scholars had thought.
In Cuzco, the royal city was created to resemble a cougar; the head, the main royal structure, formed what is now known as Sacsayhuamán.
It was conquered by the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, which established a Viceroyalty with jurisdiction over most of its South American domains.
The nation declared independence from Spain in 1821, but consolidated only after the Battle of Ayacucho, three years later.
Cultivation of plants such as corn and cotton (Gossypium barbadense) began, as well as the domestication of animals such as the wild ancestors of the llama, the alpaca and the guinea pig, as seen in the 6000BC-dated Camelid relief paintings in the Mollepunko caves in Callalli.
Inhabitants practiced spinning and knitting of cotton and wool, basketry and pottery.